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Prior to European colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was a part of the Inca Empire – the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The conquistadors took control of the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was known as Upper Peru and was under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of Spain's South American colonies, although the area enjoyed substantial autonomy under the jurisdiction of the Royal Court of Charcas. After declaring independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825. This image shows a llama in the Laguna Colorada, a shallow salt lake in the southwestern Bolivian sector of the Altiplano. Image courtesy of Phillie Casablanca.
The quena is a woodwind instrument consisting of a hollow tube with holes cut for notes. It is played by placing the mouthpiece notch under the bottom lip & blowing. Originally constructed of animal bone or bamboo shoots, some quenas today are made of wood. The smallest is called a quenilla and the largest is called a quenacho. The sweet melody of the quena flute evokes images of tranquil Andean highlands. Quena means many-holed object in the Quechua language and it is said to have entranced birds to soar above the person playing it. This may be no wonder, given that early versions the quena were crafted from condor bone. Although its origin is unclear, the quenahas been found in nearly all countries of Latin America.